Some of the Fundamental Rights laid down by the Qur’ân
The Right to Life: “Do not take any human being's life which Allâh has declared sacred other than in (pursuit) of justice…” (6:151)
The Right to dignity and honour: “O You who believe! Do not let one make fun of another, do not defame one another, do not insult by using nicknames, do not backbite or speak ill of one another” (49:11-12)
Right to privacy: Do not spy on one another. (49:12)
Do not enter any houses unless you are sure of the occupant's consent. (24:27)
The Right to a fair trial: “O you who believe! Be steadfast in your devotion to Allâh, bearing witness to the truth in all equity, and never let the hatred of anyone lead you to deviate from justice…” (5:8)
No citizen can be imprisoned unless his guilt has been proven in an open court. To arrest a man only on the basis of suspicion, without proper court proceedings and without providing him a reasonable opportunity to produce his defence is not permissible in Islam.
The Right to Protest against Tyranny: Among the rights that Islam has conferred on human beings is the right to protest against tyranny.
Abû Bakr Radhi-Allâhu 'anhu, in his very first address as Caliph said: "Cooperate with me when I am right, but correct me when I commit error; obey me so long as I follow the commandments of Allâh and His Prophet; but turn away from me when I deviate.”
Freedom of Expression: Islâm gives the right of freedom of thought and expression to all citizens of the Islâmic state on the condition that it should be used for the propagation of virtue and truth and not for spreading evil and wickedness. Under no circumstances does Islam allow evil and wickedness to be propagated under the guise of freedom of expression. It also does not give anybody the right to use abusive or offensive language in the name of criticism.
The Right to Basic Necessities of Life: Islâm has recognized the right of the needy people for help and assistance to be provided to them: “And in their wealth there is acknowledged right for the needy and destitute. (51:19)
Equality before the Law: Islâm gives its citizens the right to absolute and complete equality in the eyes of the law. A woman belonging to a high and noble family was arrested in connection with theft. The case was brought to the Prophet, and it was recommended that she might be spared the punishment of theft. The Prophet replied, "The nations that lived before you were destroyed by Allâh because they punished the common man for their offenses, and let their dignitaries go unpunished for their crimes. I swear by Him Who holds my life in His hand that even if Fâtimah, daughter of Muhammad, had committed this crime, I would have amputated her hand."
May Allâh Ta'âlâ grant us the faith and foresight to preserve our distinct identity by embracing the revealed law as the basis of all human endeavours, Aameen.
Source - Jamiat SA