Early Adverse Childhood Events
One study evaluating over 13,000 adults aged 18 and over found that those who were physically abused prior to age 18 years were seven times more likely to have ADHD.*
Another study by Dr. Fuller-Thomson found that twice as many women with ADHD reported they had experienced sexual abuse or physical abuse during children compared with adults who did not have ADHD. It is important to note that it was not possible to determine whether cause and effect, since children with behavior problems may be more likely to suffer abuse.
*Esme Fuller-Thomson, Rukshan Mehta, Angela Valeo. Establishing a Link Between Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Childhood Physical Abuse. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2014; 23 (2): 188 DOI: 10.1080/10926771.2014.873510