Jan 11, 2022  |  VIEW IN BROWSER


Happy 2022:  ‘Reaching Toward What is Next’

Kendra Moesle, AFOP Director of Workforce Development
Jan 3, 2022

Happy New Year from the nation’s capital!  2021 was a roller coaster, full of ups and downs related to the pandemic:  infection rates; the COVID vaccine; vaccine-or-test mandates (and court orders about the mandate); new variants like Delta and Omicron that surprised us when we thought we’d already seen it all.  2022 might not be all that different, scientists and other experts warn.  COVID, much like influenza, is here to stay.
Fortunately, AFOP members proved something else to their farmworker participants in 2021:  that THEY are here to stay, too.  Against all odds, AFOP members provided the best possible job training to farmworkers, placing them into their chosen careers amidst a volatile labor market.  NFJP participants went on to become diesel technicians, HVAC technicians, agronomists, auto mechanics, full-time ranchers, nurses, linemen, and more.  When clients struggled – because classes went online, they lost their jobs or scholarships, support systems vanished, or they or their family members fell ill – NFJP was there, supporting them through the maelstroms of life.

There are countless stories we could highlight.  We’ve chosen just three.

Black Hills Special Services Cooperative (BHSSC) provided Rosalinda, a high-school drop-out and young farmworker mom, with an OJT contract that restored her to her preferred career as a Certified Nursing Assistant.  Rosalinda is now on track to become a Licensed Practical Nurse, a role model for her children that education is the path to a better life. 
Kentucky Farmworker Programs (KFP) gave Jake, a cattle farmer, tuition and supportive services that enabled him to obtain his Commercial Driver’s License.  Prior to participating in NFJP, Jake struggled with drug addiction and earned just over $9,000/year.  Now he is a successful owner/operator in the trucking business and makes over $130,000 annually.
Motivation, Education, and Training (MET, Inc.) of Texas provided welding training to Julian, a recent high school graduate and son of another MET client.  Julian successfully completed the program and was hired on as a welder at $18/hour.  Unfortunately, COVID hit their family in the fall of 2021, and, while Julian survived, his father did not.  Julian now supports his family, resting in the knowledge that he’s achieved his dream and made his dad proud.

AFOP members have always stood in the gap for farmworkers when times were hard, and that is true now more than ever.  As we look ahead to 2022, we count our blessings and are grateful for this Association of incredibly dedicated service providers.  In the words of National Youth Poet laureate Amanda Gorman, “Let us not return to what was normal, but reach toward what is next.”


AFOP Plans 2022 Leadership Conference for February 1-2, 2022

January 7, 2022

AFOP is excited to host Directors and senior staff at our 2022 Leadership Conference at the Phoenix Park Hotel in Washington, DC.  This will be our first in-person conference in two years.  With the Omicron outbreak expected to quickly fade, we are moving forward with the meeting with plans in place to ensure that all CDC protocols will be observed.
The agenda is packed with senior staff training on practical leadership as well as presentations by key DOL staff.  We hope to see you there!
Register now!

Long Time OIC Washington CEO Steve Mitchell Retires

December 20, 2021

Steve Mitchell, long time CEO of OIC Washington, retired on December 31, 2021. He will stay on as a consultant to the Board of Directors during the transition period.  Anthony Peterson assumed the role of Interim CEO as of January 1, 2022. 
In a memo dated December 20th, 2021, Mr. Mitchell made the following statement: “I would like to thank all of the funders, partners, and community volunteers for your support and your help to fulfill OIC of Washington’s mission of helping in the elimination of unemployment, poverty, illiteracy, and racism so all people can live with greater human dignity.”
Thank you, Mr. Mitchell, for your lifetime of service to farmworkers.
Dr. Arnold, PPEP Founder, provides blankets to Mexican nationals.  Photo courtesy of PPEP.

PPEP Founder Dr. John Arnold Conducts Outreach in Mexico

January 7, 2022

PPEP Founder and philanthropist Dr. John Arnold recently traveled to Mexico to distribute blankets and other items to those in need.  AFOP salutes Dr. Arnold for his tireless work in this regard.  
Tammy Sellars, career coach in Rapid City for the National Farmworker Jobs Program

AFOP Member Black Hills Special Services Featured in Local News for NFJP Successes

Rapid City Journal
December 1, 2021
By Michael Neary

The Rapid City Journal featured Black Hills Special Services Cooperative and career coach Tammy Sellars for successfully helping local agricultural workers find careers that are right for them.  Tate Fox, the featured NFJP participant, earned his diploma in power line construction and maintenance, and he now works as an apprentice lineman for Cable Communication Services, in Black Hawk.  Fox told the Journal that Black Hills’ “human contact along with the financial assistance proved to be valuable.”
“It was also nice that Tammy would check in monthly to see how I was doing and see if I needed anything,” Fox wrote. “She is there for you, and she takes her job very seriously.”
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Haley Taibemal wraps a gift at MEO’s Family Center |  Photo by MEO

Free Gift Wrapping Initiative Provided by MEO Youth Services

December 20, 2021

Maui Economic Opportunity Youth Services intermediate students and high schoolers were busy this season spreading holiday cheer making ornaments for kupuna [grandparents] and collecting toys and infant care necessities for keiki [kids] at Ka Hale A Ke Ola Homeless Resource Centers.
Free gift wrapping by Maui Economic Opportunity Youth Services was provided in Wailuku, Hawaii, on Wednesday, Dec. 22, at MEO’s Family Center.  A drive-thru drop-off area was set up in the parking lot, where gifts were accepted for wrapping until 1 p.m.  Individuals were contacted by phone or text when gifts were ready for pick-up.
Gift wrapping was free, though donations were accepted. Funds raised through the event will be used to support Youth Services programs.

Read More
PathStone Outreach Coordinator Juan Morales sits in his office in Presque Isle.  Credit: David DiMinno / The Star-Herald

Community Development Group Matches Migrant Workers with Aroostook Employers

Bangor Daily News

December 15, 2021
By David DiMinno

PathStone Maine was featured in the Bangor Daily News for its efforts to find farmworkers employment in Aroostook County.  PathStone’s Outreach Coordinator in Aroostook County, Juan Morales, said that PathStone Maine is “not a cookie cutter program.  We here at PathStone understand every person is unique, whether they would like to stay in the field or not, we can help them achieve their goals.” 
“The fuel for Maine’s PathStone team,” the article reported, “is knowing they have an opportunity to help people, bringing their own passion into the work they do.”
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Lourdes Cardenas, shown here picking grapes in Madera County in September 2016, often works at least 10 hours a day, six days a week in season. A new state law will provide her with overtime pay. GARY CORONADO TNS

California Farmworkers Now Get Overtime Pay After 8 Hours

Fresno Bee
January 9, 2022
By Nadia Lopez

For years, hundreds of thousands of farmworkers toiling in California’s agricultural heartland weren’t entitled to overtime pay unless they worked more than 10 hours a day.  But that has changed due to a 2016 state law that’s been gradually implemented over four years.  As of Jan. 1, California law requires that employers with 26 or more employees pay overtime wages to farmworkers after eight hours a day or 40 hours a week.
Of the fully implemented law, La Cooperativa Campesina de California Executive Director Marco Lizárraga said, “We fought hard for this overtime law and we finally won!”

Read More
Photo by Esther Honig, Harvest Public Media |

Thousands of Farmworkers Will Get Pay Raises Thanks To Lawsuit

December 2, 2021

Guest farmworkers will see pay increases in 2022 thanks to a lawsuit to stop a Trump-era wage freeze CalMatters reports. President Trump proposed the freeze in an attempt to help farmers who lost profit and fallowed land during the pandemic shutdown in 2020.  But Farmworker Justice and other farmworker advocates sued the Department of Agriculture to stop the freeze from taking effect.
The wage increase is based on the USDA’s annual survey findings on farm labor, released on Nov. 24. The survey and its findings are used to determine the rate of pay for temporary, seasonal agricultural workers employed through the H-2A program. The wage increase was in jeopardy because of a wage freeze proposed under former President Donald Trump that aimed to help farmers, many of whom lost profit and laid fallow their land due to the impact of the shutdowns in early 2020. Farmworker Justice and other advocates sued the Department of Agriculture over the proposed wage freeze and secured an injunction to stop the ruling.

“We are pleased that the federal court overturned the Trump Administration’s regulation that would have frozen wages for U.S. and foreign farmworkers at employers that use the H-2A agricultural guestworker program,” said Bruce Goldstein, president of Farmworker Justice, in an email statement to The Fresno Bee.
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Farmworker Overtime Debate to Continue into 2022

Spectrum News 1
December 15, 2021
By Nick Reisman

The New York State Department of Labor announced plans to hold public hearings through January on the effect of lowering the threshold for overtime pay for farmworkers in the state.

At issue is lowering the threshold at which farmworkers in New York would qualify for overtime pay from 60 hours a week to 40 hours. Progressive advocacy organizations have urged the threshold to be lowered, arguing farmworkers — many of them seasonal migrants — should be treated like all other workers in the economy.

But farmers and their allies have pushed back in recent weeks as the Department of Labor's wage board decision was believed to be getting closer, saying the lower threshold would hurt family-run farms and make agricultural products in New York all the more expensive and scarce.

Read More


The Struggles You Should Know:  2021 CIFC Publication Released

Children in the Fields Campaign
January 5, 2021

AFOP’s Children in the Fields Campaign has recently launched its annual publication “Children in the Fields: The Struggles You Should Know.”  CIFC invites you to read the publication and share with friends, co-workers, constituents, and stakeholders.

The publication explains the many struggles farmworker children face including:  poverty, education, health, COVID, financial burden, mental health, migration, human trafficking, and more.  The data collected for this publication was made possible by our partnership with Oregon Human Development Corporation, PathStone Corporation in Ohio, and Motivation, Education & Training, Inc., in Texas and North Dakota.  These organizations collected stories from over 50 farmworker children, and, in exchange for their time, AFOP provided the children with gift cards.

Talking about the struggles farmworker children face and spreading the information will help in our fight to change child labor laws in agriculture.

You can download a low-resolution (1.6MB) directly from our website, or you can send an email for a full resolution (6MB) or hard copy to Melanie Forti at

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NFTP Ready for 2022

AFOP Health & Safety
January 5, 2022

On January 4th, AFOP’s Health & Safety Programs officially launched its 2022 National Farmworker Training Program (NFTP) with a webinar orientation for participating organizations coordinators. In the next couple of weeks, we will begin to certify 50 new trainers and provide refresher trainings to 152 returning trainers located in 34 states.  Our national goal is to train a total of 36,000 farmworkers in pesticide safety, take-home pesticide exposures, pesticide exposure and pregnancy, as well as heat stress prevention.

NFTP is funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A.) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Susan Harwood grant, to provide occupational health and safety trainings to the farmworker community.  The program’s budget is $660,000, which is distributed among participating organizations, training certifications, training materials, take-home materials, travel, training platforms, the online database, social media platforms, radio spots, and more.

If your organization is still interested in participating but has questions, email Melanie Forti at and/or Vashti Kelly at

AFOP Health & Safety Events Scheduled for 2022

AFOP Health & Safety
January 5, 2022

AFOP’s Health & Safety Programs invites you to join our upcoming events.  
  • March 26 – April 2:  National Long Sleeve Shirt Drive (NLSSD) during National Farmworker Awareness Week
  • May 15 – 21:  National Farmworker Women’s Health Week (NFWHW)
  • July 10 – 16:  National Heat Stress Prevention Training Marathon (NHSPTMW)
Should your organization like to join our efforts, please contact Melanie Forti at or Vashti Kelly at  We will be holding a half-hour webinar prior to the events for participating organizations as they join our efforts to bring awareness.  A successful event or campaign requires working together in a cohesive way.  In order to maximize the efforts, AFOP will provide a social media tool kit in order to have a uniform and strong campaign.

These webinars are for your organization’s communications specialist and will be provided by AFOP Health and Safety’s Laura Najarro on the following dates:
  • March 6 – NLSSD
  • May 5 – NFWHW
  • July 6 - NHSPTMW
Should you like to take part, please email Laura at  We hope you can you join us and help spread awareness!

Putting People before Pesticides:  New Bill to Replace FIFRA Introduced in Congress

Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA)
December 2, 2021

After a brief attempt in 2020, Senator Cory Booker (D-New Jersey) has again introduced the Protect America’s Children from Toxic Pesticides Act (PACTPA).  The bill would overhaul U.S. pesticide regulations, ultimately mandating new rules to protect people and the environment.

Each year the United States uses over one billion pounds of pesticides — nearly a fifth of worldwide usage — and use levels continue to increase.

The current law governing U.S. pesticide regulations, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), contains provisions that prioritize pesticide industry interests above the health and safety of people and our environment.

Once approved, under FIFRA, pesticides typically remain on the market for decades, even after scientific evidence shows significant harm to people or the environment, especially farmworkers and farmworker children.  This outdated law continues to support widespread application of pesticides by failing to respond to the real and measurable threats these chemicals pose.

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H-2A Visas Surpass 300,000 in 2021; Farmworker Justice Develops H-2A Data Portal

Farmworker Justice
December 2, 2021

Despite – or perhaps because of – the ongoing global pandemic, fiscal year 2021 was a record-breaking year for the H-2A program.  DOL certified 317,619 positions from October 2020 to September 2021, marking the first time the program exceeded 300,000 positions.  The total number of certified positions increased 15.3% in 2021 relative to 2020.
Farmworker Justice prepared a data portal with an interactive map presenting national and state statistics.  Florida reported the highest number of certifications, followed by California, then Washington state.  According to Farmworker Justice, “one of the many troubling aspects of the H-2A program is the increasing number of farm labor contractors (FLCs) that are granted approval to bring in H-2A guestworkers; FLCs are notorious for violating workers’ rights while the grower/farmer owner – i.e., the FLCs customer – denies responsibility for the mistreatment of workers on its farm.”

Read More
A Mexican agricultural worker cultivates romaine lettuce on a farm in Holtville, California. | John Moore/Getty Images

Biden and Businesses Agree on One thing: U.S. Needs Immigrant Workers

December 4, 2021
By Rebecca Rainey

Immigration troubles are contributing to America’s job-market woes.  Processing delays for millions of foreign workers are aggravating the nation’s labor shortage, lawmakers and business groups say, putting the dysfunction of the immigration system on display at a pivotal time for the economic recovery. 
More than 1.3 million employment authorization applications were pending before U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services at the end of June, according to the latest data from the agency.  On top of that, an estimated 1.5 million immigrants are waiting in line for employment-based green cards — many already in the U.S. on other visas — that would allow them to stay permanently, but only 140,000 are available each year.
The squeeze on foreign labor comes as the country's working-age population has been declining and as businesses say they can’t find enough workers to staff their operations because of the pandemic. There were 10.4 million job openings in the U.S. at the end of September, according to the Labor Department.
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Department of Homeland Security Issues Revised Standards in Immigration Enforcement Actions

Farmworker Justice
November 12, 2021

The Secretary of Homeland Security Alejandro Mayorkas recently issued two guidance memos that have important implications for immigrant workers involved in labor disputes.  The first memo, titled Guidelines for the Enforcement of Civil Immigration Law, provides new standards for Immigration and Customs Enforcement to use when deciding whether to arrest/detain immigrants or place them in removal proceedings. It requires agency officials to treat a worker’s involvement in a labor dispute as a mitigating factor in enforcement decisions.
The second memo is titled Worksite Enforcement: The Strategy to Protect the American Labor Market, the Conditions of the American Worksite, and the Dignity of the Individual.  The memo orders an immediate halt to mass worksite raids, as well as a broad review of Department of Homeland Security policies affecting immigrant workers in labor disputes.  It sets forth three main goals for the Department: delivering more severe consequences to exploitative employers, increasing willingness of workers to report employers and cooperate in investigations, and improving coordination with labor agencies.
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U.S. Labor Secretary Marty Walsh in September | Al Drago for The Washington Post

Ushering in the New Year, Labor Secretary Marty Walsh Talks about New Vaccine Rule, Labor Activism, and Omicron

Washington Post
Eli Rosenberg
December 31, 2021

Few things have been as upended during the pandemic as the labor market.
Labor Secretary Marty Walsh, the Biden administration’s point person for dealing with the labor market disruption, has faced a mountain of crises that will continue to prove challenging in 2022.  Joblessness is still well above what it was before the pandemic; worker shortages threaten several sectors from airlines to restaurants, and workplaces have been mired in lingering safety issues that many have looked to the Department of Labor to resolve. There’s also the existential questions about labor policy like gig work and minimum wage, both of which the agency plays a big role in shaping.
During a recent interview with The Washington Post, Labor Secretary Marty Walsh listed the things he was most proud of in nearly a year in office so far, including visiting more than 60 cities to help tout the American Rescue plan and the infrastructure package, kick-starting the Department of Labor’s push to modernize the unemployment insurance system, and passing two emergency safety standards for workplaces to follow during the pandemic.
He also spoke about his work seeing through an employer vaccine mandate, one of the more contentious policies that the agency has undertaken in decades. Companies are required to find out the vaccination status of their employees by Jan. 10, and have unvaccinated employees wear masks. By Feb. 9, they are required to have unvaccinated workers test weekly, or they will face steep financial penalties.
Read the condensed interview highlights here.
Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals in Cincinnati, OH | Photo

Court Dissolves Stay of OSHA Emergency Temporary Standard on Vaccination and Testing

December 18, 2021

On December 17th, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit dissolved the stay of OSHA’s Emergency Temporary Standard on Vaccination and Testing for COVID-19.  OSHA issued a statement announcing that they are “gratified” by the ruling, and OSHA “can now once again implement this vital workplace health standard, which will protect the health of workers by mitigating the spread of the unprecedented virus in the workplace.”

To account for any uncertainty created by the stay, OSHA is exercising enforcement discretion with respect to the compliance dates of the ETS.  To provide employers with sufficient time to come into compliance, OSHA will not issue citations for noncompliance with any requirements of the ETS before January 10 and will not issue citations for noncompliance with the standard’s testing requirements before February 9, so long as an employer is exercising reasonable, good faith efforts to come into compliance with the standard. 

OSHA will work closely with the regulated community to provide compliance assistance.

Read More
Photo (c) MeadowSweetbees

USDOL Finds Three Florida Beekeeping Farms in Violation of H-2A Requirements

December 9, 2021

Three Florida beekeeping farms felt the sting of civil money penalties for failing to comply with federal laws regarding pay practices and the employment of migrant and seasonal workers.
In separate investigations, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division found violations of the H-2A program and the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act at businesses in Brevard and Gulf counties.
In Brevard County, Flowing Gold Apiaries in Grant was found to have changed the terms of their contract after employees arrived for work, paying H-2A workers higher than the advertised rate. By advertising the lower rate, the employer may have discouraged U.S. workers from applying for the job. In addition, they failed to pay three workers over multiple pay periods and failed to reimburse visa and travel costs. The employer paid $7,500 to the workers to resolve violations and an additional $3,395 in civil money penalties.
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Derek Hobbs sprays de-icing salt on the sidewalk during his shift in Philadelphia, Dec. 2017.  Due to having a criminal record, he was kept out of the formal workforce for more than 25 years before turning to an innovative local employment program. Photo by Center on American Progress

Fines and Fees Are a Barrier to Record-Clearing

Center on American Progress
By Gus Tupper, Akua Amaning, and Jaboa Lake
December 1, 2021

Enormous obstacles have blocked more than 90 percent of justice system-impacted people from clearing their criminal records within five years of their eligibility. The fines and fees system disproportionately affect people in poverty and communities of color.  Devastating consequences often accompany a criminal record, too: limited access to housing and education, lifetime bans on TANF and SNAP eligibility, and much more.

Key recommendations to help dismantle this system include, among others:
  • Eliminating or reducing court fines and abolishing fees
  • Supporting systems that promote transparency in the use of fines and fees
  • Allowing expungement of cases with unpaid monetary sanctions
Read More


Applications for the USDA Farm and Food Worker Relief Grant Program Due by February 8th


The Farm and Food Worker Relief Grant Program provides approximately $665 million in Consolidated Appropriations Act funds to provide grants to State agencies, Tribal entities, and nonprofit organizations with experience in providing support or relief services to farmworkers or meatpacking workers.  Awards will generally range from $5,000,000 to $50,000,000.
Entities receiving awards will then distribute relief payments to frontline farmworkers and meatpacking workers who incurred expenses preparing for, preventing exposure to, and responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.  USDA strongly encourages small organizations to partner together or with national organizations in submitting applications to ensure this support has the broadest reach and distribution possible to America’s farm and food workers.  $20 million of the total amount is set aside for one or more grant agreements to benefit grocery store workers.
Important Points:
  • Applicants must submit applications on or before 11:59 p.m. (EST) February 8, 2022.
  • In 2022, workers will apply to grant recipients to receive funds.
More information

Upward Bound Grant Applications Deadline January 31st

Employment & Training Reporter
December 20, 2021

The Department of Education is soliciting applications for Upward Bound grants, which provide college preparation services to high school students from low-income families, and to students who will be first-generation college students.  Activities can include tutoring, counseling, mentoring, cultural enrichment, work-study, financial literacy education, and other services.  This grant opportunity includes priorities for programs that strengthen cross-agency coordination and community engagement, and that meet the social, emotional and academic needs of students.  Institutions of higher education, public agencies, private companies and nonprofit organizations are eligible to apply for grants of up to $287,537, for new grantees.
Larger awards are allowable for current grantees.  Projects will run for up to 60 months.  Applications are due January 31st, 2022.  This is the general Upward Bound grant opportunity.  At a later date, additional solicitations are expected for special Upward Bound grants for serving veterans and for projects with a math and science focus.
Find this solicitation and apply at, using funding opportunity number ED-GRANTS-121621-003.

Health Resources and Services Admin Grant Announced, Due March 18th


December 17, 2021

The Department of Health & Human Services has announced the opportunity to apply for funding under the Rural Public Health Workforce Training Network Program (RPHWTN). The purpose of this program is to expand public health capacity by supporting health care job development, training and placement in rural and tribal communities. The expected impact of this program is to enhance clinical and operational capacity in order to adequately address the population health needs of rural communities affected by COVID-19, including those dealing with the effects of long COVID19.
The RPHWTN program addresses the ongoing critical need in health care facilities for trained public health professionals serving rural communities.
Applications are due by March 18th, 2022.  The total estimated program funding is $47,895,000, with 31 total awards expected.
Read More


Carpentry student Jose Santos Jr. takes measurements before cutting a piece of wood at Williamson College of the Trades in Media, Pa., on Dec. 16. Santos is in his second year in the carpentry program at the school, with plans to start his own business flipping houses. “My friends all applied to four-year colleges, and now they’re in debt and I’m not,” says Santos. (Saquan Stimpson/Hechinger Report)

Long Disparaged, Education for Skilled Trades Making a Comeback

Washington Post
December 31, 2021
By Jon Marcus

Education for the skilled trades appears to be returning to fashion, according to enrollment trends, survey data, and other signals.
“If you look at where the jobs are, the sweet spot is an associate’s degree with a focus on the trades,” said Michael Rounds, president of the Williamson College of the Trades.
One trend reviving interest in education in the trades appears to be growing doubt among high school students and those changing careers about the value of a four-year college degree. The proportion of high-schoolers who are considering a four-year education has plummeted from 71 percent to 48 percent since the start of coronavirus pandemic, according to a survey by the ECMC Group, a nonprofit student loan guaranty agency that also operates career schools.
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Creator: Mario Tama | Credit: 2021 Getty Images

Biden Administration Unveils Efforts to Add to Trucking Workforce

The Hill
By Brett Samuels
December 16, 2021

The Department of Transportation and the Department of Labor are partnering on a 90-day initiative to engage with industry leaders, drivers, and other stakeholders to improve trucker pay, attract new talent to the industry, and retain drivers.

Senior administration officials highlighted the trucking industry as a critical cog in moving the nation's goods at a time when the supply chains are under stress from the coronavirus pandemic.  More than 70 percent of the country's freight is transported by trucks, they said.
"Even before the pandemic, the industry was facing trouble recruiting and retaining a next generation workforce," a senior administration official said.
One initiative will focus on registered apprenticeship programs where drivers can get paid while they learn on the job.  As part of that initiative, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration will provide more than $30 million to help states expedite the issuance of commercial driver's licenses to those qualified.
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The Impact of Increased Immigrant Enforcement on Child Welfare

Child Welfare League of America
October 27, 2021

As of 2016, out of the 70 million children under 18 in the U.S., more than 18 million reside with at least one immigrant parent.  The recent years of policies and practices involving family separation, deportation, and detainment deeply impact the lives of families residing in a mixed household status. The presentation noted that as a result of these enforcement policies, families, children, and communities often live in fear of law enforcement.  For children, this fear can project into relations with friends, neighbors, and classmates.
Each state has varying policies on providing kinship care and how to obtain foster care eligibility and licensure for placing a child with a family member. Twenty states have explicit standards in foster care licensure as it pertains to citizenship and immigration status. Of these 20 states, Oregon, Massachusetts, and New Jersey have explicit exemptions that allow undocumented immigrants to receive full licensure and provide kinship care. Colorado, Hawaii, and North Carolina have general waivers and alternative approval processes to aid in relative kinship care. Georgia, Arizona, Michigan, Mississippi, and Missouri are all states with non-exception policies that requires legal documentation of citizenship for foster care licensure further perpetuating barriers to kinship care placement.
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The AFOP Washington Newsline (ISSN# 1056-8565) is produced by the Association of Farmworker Opportunity Programs (AFOP), a national federation of agencies serving migrant and seasonal farmworkers. AFOP’s mission is to improve the quality of life for migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families by promoting self-sufficiency through employment and training opportunities, educational attainment, and health and safety.

The publication is funded by subscriptions and the members of AFOP. The Washington Newsline receives no financial support from the federal government. Staff may be reached by calling (202) 963-3200.
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