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CHAS e-newsletter provides policy briefs, service innovations, upcoming events and opportunities for health policy and services researchers at the University of Chicago.
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THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO
School of Social Service Administration
CHAS eNews: February 2016
POLICY BRIEFS
Quantifying Consumer Preferences for Long-Term Care 
In an innovative CHAS-supported study, Tamara Konetzka, Department of Public Health Sciences, and colleagues demonstrate the potential of Time trade-off (TTO) methods for quantifying consumer preference for long-term care service delivery options.   The method is a utility-elicitation technique developed in health economics to quantify consumer preference.   As Konetzka and colleagues note, such quantification is important for developing standard metrics of quality of life, as well as for expanding effectiveness studies beyond clinical outcomes.   Long-term care is an area especially ripe for such innovation. Despite consumer preference playing a key role in shaping policy over the past two decades, these preferences have not rigorously quantified. Using focus groups, the study found TTO-based utilities to be consistent with qualitatively elicited preferences, suggesting the TTO method is a feasible option for quantifying preference in long-term care.  The study highlights the potential of TTO as an important new method for enhancing the evidence-base in this and other policy areas.  For more publication details, please see: Guo, J, Kontezka, RT, Dale, William.  (2014).  Using Time Trade-off Methods to Assess Preferences Over Health Care Delivery Options: A Feasibility Study.  Value in Health, 17 (2): 302-305.  
Study Finds No Evidence to Support Prevention Counseling as a Part of HIV Testing
Fall Quarter 2015 Michael Davis lecturer, Professor Lisa Metsch, Columbia University, presented findings from Project AWARE, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of prevention counseling in HIV testing.  The study, conducted by Metsch and colleagues, randomized 5012 patients from 9 sexually transmitted disease clinics in the United States to receive either brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling with a rapid HIV test or testing with information only.  At 6 months, no significant difference between groups in the cumulative incidence of any measured sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, was found.  These findings have led to a critical rethinking of risk-reduction counseling, long considered an essential component of HIV testing.   As a JAMA editorial accompanying publication of the study argued: “[i]n an era of shrinking resources, clinicians and policy makers cannot ignore data that inform efficient clinical practice. . . . . [R]esults from the AWARE trial support the notion that prevention counseling in conjunction with HIV testing is not effective and should not be included as a routine part of practice.”  Please refer to Professor Metsch's archived Davis lecture slides on our website.  For more detailed publication information, see: Metsch, LR, Feaster, DJ, Gooden, L, et al.  (2013).  Effect of Risk-Reduction Counseling With Rapid HIV Testing on Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections: The AWARE Randomized Clinical Trial.  JAMA, 310 (16): 1701-1710.  
Gender Moderates Treatment Outcomes in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment
Combining substance abuse treatment with other health and social services has consistently been shown to improve treatment outcomes.  Little is known, however, about if and/or how the effects of comprehensive substance abuse treatment may differ by race/ethnicity and gender.  CHAS faculty member Jeanne Marsh (SSA) and colleagues help fill this gap.  Using survey data from the National Treatment Improvement Study (NTIES), Marsh and colleagues examine gender differences in service utilization and outcomes within Black, White, and Latino subgroups. Using an analytic sample of 3,142 clients from 59 service delivery organizations, Marsh and colleagues find that gender is a significant moderator of the relationship between service receipt and treatment outcomes, especially for Latinos, with some variability by service type.  They also find gender disparities in utilization and outcome in each of the groups.  Their findings provides critical new information for understanding race-specific gender disparities in substance abuse treatment, and point to the need for additional process research to illuminate which groups are helped by specific treatment ingredients and processes.  For more article details, please see: Guerrero, EG, Marsh, JC, Cao, D, Sin, H-C, Andrews, C.  (2014).  Gender Disparities in Utilization and Outcome of Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment Among Racial/Ethnic GroupsJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 46: 584-591
SERVICE INNOVATIONS
Study Identifies Clinical and Social Factors Associated with PrEP Awareness and Uptake Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men 
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an HIV antiretroviral medication which, when taken daily, has been shown to be highly effective in preventing new infections.  Approved in 2012 by the FDA, it represents one of the most promising new HIV prevention interventions.  Little is yet known about how to improve awareness, access, and uptake among high risk groups, such as young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM).   In a recently published study, CHAS Fellow and Michael Davis Lecturer, John Schneider (Department of Medicine) and colleagues, report new findings on PrEP awareness and uptake among a population-based sample of YBMSM.  Schneider and colleagues find low levels of awareness and uptake—only 40.5% of their participants report being aware of PrEP and only 3.6% of those not infected with HIV had used PrEP.  However, their study identifies a number of clinical and social factors associated with PrEP awareness, suggesting important new possibilities for intervention.  For more detailed publication information, please see: Khanna, AS, Michaels, S, Skaathun, B et al.  Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Use in a Population-Based Sample of Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men [published online November 16, 2015]. JAMA Internal Medicine. 
ANNOUNCEMENTS
Two More CHAS Fellows Named
CHAS is pleased to announce the following University of Chicago faculty have been named CHAS Fellows, based on their contributions to health policy and services research:

Daniel Adelman, PhD, MSc
Booth School of Business
 
Brian Callender, MD, MA
Section of Hospital Medicine, Dept. of Medicine

 
CHAS at the University of Chicago Center in Paris
On May 26-27, 2016, the Center for Health Administration Studies will be co-hosting, with the Sciences Po Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies (LIEPP), a multi-day conference in Paris, France at the University of Chicago's Center in Paris campus.  The Sciences Po-University of Chicago Workshop on Health Policy Innovation and Reform conference will bring together health policy researchers and scholars from the U.S. and France to share their most recent work in a deliberately comparative and collaborative context. The underlying assumption is that there are sizeable potential gains in knowledge growth and policy innovation that can result from such a systematic, scientific exchange of ideas.  Research and evaluation in both countries has contributed to reforms in health and social service policy.  The process by which social science research and evaluation influences health policy innovation and reform will be the focus of the conference. 

CHAS will to provide conference media and summary outcomes in future eNews editions and on the CHAS website.

 
Upcoming Proposal Opportunities

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Policies for Action: Policy and Law Research to Build a Culture of Health
Deadline: March 15, 2016
Policies for Action: Policy and Law Research to Build a Culture of Health (P4A) was created to help build an evidence base for policies that can lead to a Culture of Health. P4A seeks to engage long-standing health and health care researchers, as well as experts in fields like housing, education, transportation, and the built environment, to name a few, who have not worked in health before. The goal is to develop research that generates actionable evidence-the data and information that can guide legislators and other policymakers, public agencies, educators, advocates, community groups, and individuals. Click here for more information.
 
William T. Grant Foundation Research Grants

Deadline: May 5, 2016
We are focused on youth ages 5 to 25 in the United States. We fund research that increases our understanding of: programs, policies, and practices that reduce inequality in youth outcomes, and strategies to improve the use of research evidence in ways that benefit youth. Click here for more information.

 
UPCOMING EVENTS

Michael M. Davis Lecture Series:

April 5, 2016:
Anup Malani, "The Indian Health Insurance Experiment"

April 12, 2016:
Reuben Miller, "You're in a Room Full of Addicts! Prisoner Reentry as a Social Institution and the 'Making Up' of the Ex-Offender"

April 19, 2016:
Sarah Gollust, "Geographic Variation in ACA-Related Media Messages and Health Insurance Enrollment"

April 26, 2016: 
Ruth Thompson-Miller, "Intergenerational Trauma: Clinicians Trained to Diagnose and Treat Elderly African American Survivors of Jim Crow Suffering with Symptoms of Segregation Stress Syndrome (collective PTSD)"

May 3, 2016: 
Lawrence Palinkas, "Implementation Science as a Model for Social Work Science: The View from Child Welfare and Child Mental Health"

May 10, 2016: 
Ronald Bayer, "Precision Medicine: A New Direction for Public Health or a Utopian Delusion"

May 17, 2016: 
Erika Franklin Fowler, "Media & the Politics of Implementation: Competition, Coverage & Complexity in Affordable Care Act Messaging"
IMPORTANT DEADLINES

CHAS Predoctoral Dissertation Award: applications due before 4/30/16; guidelines on the CHAS Award page 

 
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